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Temporal Arteritis (TA)

Temporal arteritis (TA), or giant cell arteritis (GCA), is a form of vasculitis (inflammation of your blood vessels) that affects the arteries of your scalp, neck, and arms. Specialized drug and therapy development services are essential to enhance and expedite TA research. Our company is well-equipped to address your drug and therapy development requirements in Temporal Arteritis therapy.

Introduction to Temporal Arteritis

TA is the most prevalent form of vasculitis among individuals aged 50 and older, particularly affecting women more than men. This inflammatory disorder targets the medium to large arteries, prominently involving the temporal arteries, and can lead to severe complications such as irreversible blindness due to involvement of the ophthalmic artery.

Pathogenesis of Temporal Arteritis

The pathogenesis of Temporal Arteritis involves both innate and adaptive immune responses. It begins with the activation of vascular dendritic cells, which stimulate T cells and macrophages, leading to the formation of granulomatous inflammation in the arterial wall. Key events include the dysregulation of cytokine production, particularly IL-6 and IL-17, which promote inflammation and vascular damage. Recent studies also emphasize the role of various cell populations, including T cells, macrophages, and recently implicated B cells and neutrophils, in sustaining the inflammatory and vascular remodeling processes​​.

Model of sequential steps in pathogenesis of giant cell arteritis.Fig.1 Model of sequential steps in pathogenesis of giant cell arteritis. (Stamatis, P., et al., 2022)

Diagnostics Development of Temporal Arteritis

The diagnosis of TA relies heavily on symptoms, elevated inflammatory markers, and imaging studies such as ultrasound and PET scans. Temporal artery biopsy remains the gold standard for confirming the diagnosis, despite its invasiveness and the potential for false negatives. Advances in molecular diagnostics and imaging techniques are improving the accuracy of Temporal Arteritis detection and enabling earlier intervention, reducing the risk of severe complications like vision loss.

Therapy Development of Temporal Arteritis

Small Molecule Drugs

Small molecule drugs are increasingly being evaluated for their potential to modulate inflammatory pathways in TA. For instance, methotrexate, traditionally used in rheumatoid arthritis, has been explored as an adjunct therapy to reduce steroid dosage and side effects in managing TA.

Cell Therapies

Cell-based therapies are being explored for their immunomodulatory properties. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are of particular interest due to their potential to modulate immune responses and promote tissue repair. Trials are in preliminary stages to evaluate the efficacy of MSCs in reducing vascular inflammation in individuals with TA.

Monoclonal Antibodies

Monoclonal antibodies targeting specific cytokines and cell receptors offer a promising avenue for precision drug in TA. Tocilizumab, an IL-6 receptor inhibitor, has shown effectiveness in reducing symptoms and the need for corticosteroids. Ustekinumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting the p40 subunit of IL-12 and IL-23, which is being investigated for its potential to treat individuals resistant to traditional therapies.

Gene Therapies

Gene therapy approaches are still in the nascent stages but hold potential for treating TA by directly modifying the genetic drivers of inflammation. Research is focused on gene editing tools like CRISPR/Cas9 to potentially alter the expression of inflammatory genes directly involved in TA pathogenesis. These techniques could one day enable targeted interventions that address the root causes of inflammation.

Our Services

At our company, we offer a comprehensive range of services to support Temporal Arteritis diagnostics and therapy development. By analyzing the disease's genetic and molecular characteristics, we can identify specific biomarkers and tailor therapy strategies.

Platforms of Temporal Arteritis Therapy Development

Animal Models of TA

We offer animal model services to assess the efficacy and safety of potential therapies to support your research efforts. Utilizing our advanced facilities and expertise, we aim to expedite the translation of promising therapeutic approaches from the laboratory to application.

Non-Genetically Engineering Models
Our company specializes in delivering top-notch services to create NON-GEMs. We provide diverse model choices customized to meet specific research needs related to Temporal Arteritis.
Optional Models
  • Adjuvant-Induced Arteritis Model
  • Peptide-Induced Arteritis Model
  • Arterial Ligation Model
  • Viral or Bacterial Infection Models
Genetically Engineered Models
Our expertise in genetic engineering techniques, such as CRISPR/Cas9 technology, allows us to generate accurate and reliable models that recapitulate the genetic alterations observed in human Temporal Arteritis.
Optional Models
  • T-cell Receptor Transgenic Model
  • Cytokine Overexpression Model
  • MHC Class II Knockout Model
  • Endothelial Cell-Specific Knockout Model
Optional Species Mice, Rats, Non-human primates, Others

In addition to these models, our comprehensive services encompass other models that target specific signaling pathways and molecular targets.

If our services resonate with you, we invite you to contact us whenever works best for you. Let's discuss customizing our solutions to align seamlessly with your objectives and aspirations.


  • Stamatis, P., et al., "Pathogenesis of giant cell arteritis with focus on cellular populations." Front Med (Lausanne), (2022). 9: p. 1058600.
  • Weyand, C.M. and Goronzy, J.J., "Immunology of Giant Cell Arteritis." Circ Res, (2023). 132(2): p. 238-250.

All of our services and products are intended for preclinical research use only and cannot be used to diagnose, treat or manage patients.

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