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Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS)

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by the potential for blood clot formation and an increased risk of miscarriage. With our proficient team of researchers and scientists specializing in APS, we drive innovation in diagnostic tools and therapeutic drugs. As your trusted partner, we provide tailored and comprehensive services to meet your specific scientific research needs.

Overview of Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Antiphospholipid syndrome, also known as Hughes syndrome or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, is a complex autoimmune disorder characterized by the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies that target proteins bound to phospholipids. This syndrome can lead to arterial or venous thrombosis, pregnancy complications (such as miscarriage), and other thrombotic events. The annual incidence of antiphospholipid syndrome is approximately 5 cases per 100,000 individuals.

Pathological mechanisms and therapeutic drugs of antiphospholipid syndrome.Fig. 1 Summary of antiphospholipid syndrome pathogenesis and biologics therapeutics. (Yun, Zelin, et al., 2023)

Pathogenesis of Antiphospholipid Syndrome

The pathogenesis of antiphospholipid syndrome involves a dysregulated immune response that results in the production of antiphospholipid antibodies. These antibodies interact with phospholipid-binding proteins, leading to endothelial cell activation, platelet activation, and disruption of the coagulation cascade. Several mechanisms contribute to the prothrombotic state in antiphospholipid syndrome.

  • Firstly, antiphospholipid antibodies can directly activate endothelial cells, leading to increased expression of adhesion molecules and proinflammatory cytokines. This activation promotes the recruitment of immune cells and platelets, ultimately contributing to the formation of blood clots.
  • Secondly, antiphospholipid antibodies interfere with the regulation of the coagulation system, leading to an imbalance between procoagulant and anticoagulant factors. This imbalance further enhances the risk of thrombosis.

Types of Antiphospholipid Syndrome Therapy

Anticoagulation Therapy

Anticoagulation therapy is the basic strategy aimed at reducing the risk of thrombosis and related complications. Unfractionated heparin (UFH) and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) are commonly used as initial anticoagulants. Warfarin is an oral anticoagulant that is usually started concurrently with UFH or LMWH.

Immunomodulatory Therapy

Immunomodulatory therapies target the production of antiphospholipid antibodies and downstream inflammatory processes. Glucocorticoids are commonly used anti-inflammatory drugs. Rituximab reduces the production of antiphospholipid antibodies by depleting B cells.

Targeted Therapy

Targeted therapies focus on specific molecular targets. Belimumab targets B cells and helps inhibit the production of antiphospholipid antibodies. Complement inhibitors target specific components of the complement cascade, such as C5 or C3, to modulate inflammatory processes and prevent thrombosis.

Our Services

With years of extensive involvement in rare disease research, our company boasts a highly skilled team and vast expertise. We harness state-of-the-art technology to drive the development of innovative diagnostic tools, enabling early detection of antiphospholipid syndrome. By establishing animal models and conducting in-depth investigations into antiphospholipid syndrome pathogenesis and targets, we advance therapeutic drug development.

Our Research Platforms

Our Services

Animal Models of Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Spontaneous Models
Spontaneous animal models of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) refer to animal models that naturally develop features resembling APS without any experimental manipulation. Although there are relatively few spontaneous models whose characteristics may not fully replicate the complexity of human APS, they are important tools for studying the natural course of APS and identifying potential genetic factors in its development.
Induced Models
At our company, our expertise lies in the induction of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) immune responses in animals using antigens. We commonly utilize antigens such as β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI), cardiolipin, and phospholipid-binding protein. Through the administration of these antigens alone or in combination, our scientists have successfully developed APS models that faithfully replicate the relevant characteristics observed in human APS.
Optional Models
  • β2-glycoprotein I Induced Model
  • Cardiolipin Induced Model
  • Phospholipid-binding protein Induced Model
Optional Species Mice, Rabbits, Zebrafish, Non-Human Primates (Baboons and Rhesus Monkeys), Others

No matter what research stage you are at, we can provide you with corresponding research services. If you are interested in our services, please feel free to contact us for more details and quotation information of related services.


  • Yun, Zelin, et al. "An update on the biologics for the treatment of antiphospholipid syndrome." Frontiers in Immunology 14 (2023): 1145145.
  • Knight, Jason S., D. Ware Branch, and Thomas L. Ortel. "Antiphospholipid syndrome: advances in diagnosis, pathogenesis, and management." BMJ 380 (2023).

All of our services and products are intended for preclinical research use only and cannot be used to diagnose, treat or manage patients.

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