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Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome (ZES)

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) is a rare condition characterized by the development of gastrin-secreting tumors, known as gastrinomas, usually found in the pancreas or duodenum. These tumors cause excessive production of gastrin, leading to extremely high levels of stomach acid, which can cause peptic ulcers in the stomach and small intestine. Our company stands at the vanguard of ZES research, offering transformative solutions and striving to bring new hope and efficacy to individuals impacted by this complex and challenging condition.

Introduction to ZES

ZES is caused by a non-cancerous tumor that develops in the pancreas or duodenum, that affects about 1~1.5 in every 1 million people. It occurs more frequently in men than in women and usually manifests between the ages of 30 and 50. Symptoms of ZES include abdominal pain, diarrhea, and heartburn. Individuals with ZES may also develop complications such as gastrointestinal bleeding, perforation of ulcers, and obstruction of the gastrointestinal tract.

Gastrinoma triangle.Fig.1 Gastrinoma triangle. (Pratap, T., et al., 2022)

Pathogenesis of ZES

The pathogenesis of ZES is primarily due to the functioning gastrinomas, which secrete large amounts of gastrin into the bloodstream. Gastrin stimulates the enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells in the stomach to release histamine, which in turn stimulates the parietal cells to produce acid. This excessive acid production causes damage to the gastric mucosa, leading to the formation of peptic ulcers.

Gastrin has come into prominence as an essential element correlated with ZES. The pathways affiliated with gastrin involve class A/1 (rhodopsin-like receptor) and G protein signaling. Around 25-30% of ZES cases are associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome, a hereditary condition that predisposes individuals to develop tumors in various glands, including the pancreas.

Therapeutics of ZES

In cases where surgical removal is not feasible, chemotherapy or targeted therapy may be used to control tumor growth and manage symptoms. Therapeutics of ZES aims to reduce the production of stomach acid and control its effects on the digestive tract. For individuals diagnosed with ZES, determining an individualized therapeutics plan based on the underlying genetic factors, disease symptoms, and stage of development is crucial for optimizing therapeutic outcomes and enhancing individual prognosis (Fig.2).

The therapeutic algorithm for ZES.Fig.2 The therapeutic algorithm for ZES. (Rossi, R. E., et al., 2021)

Small molecule drugs commonly used to treat ZES include proton pump inhibitors (omeprazole, pantoprazole, etc.) to reduce the production of stomach acid, H2-receptor antagonists to block the action of histamine on stomach cells, and medications to reduce the production of gastrin. The like somatostatin analogs (octreotide) also play a prominent role in controlling gastrin secretion and managing symptoms in individuals with ZES.

Our Services

In the realm of diagnosing and treating ZES, there exists a substantial void that beckons the tireless efforts of countless researchers. As an avant-garde entity in the sphere of life sciences and technology, our company ardently dedicates itself to crafting platforms for the therapeutics of rare diseases. Through these innovative platforms, we aim to propel forward the realms of precise diagnosis and personalized therapeutics for ZES.

Platforms of ZES Therapy Development

Animal Models of ZES

Our company has a cadre of adept professionals and cutting-edge technologies honed in on the preclinical exploration of rare diseases. By chemicals or using knockout and transgenic technology to manipulate specific genes like MEN1 and gastrin, creating ZES animal models, can help you better understand the disease and develop new treatment strategies.

Chemical-induced Models
Using specific chemicals or drugs to induce ZES in animals, by injecting compounds (pentagastrin) to increase gastrin release and increase gastric acid production in animal models.
Optional Models Pentagastrin
Genetically Engineered Models
Animal models of ZES can be formed using gene editing techniques like CRISPR/Cas9 to introduce mutations in specific genes related to the disease, such as the gastrin gene or the MEN1 gene, which are known to be involved in the development of ZES in humans.
Optional Models MEN1, Gastrin transgenic model
Optional Species Mice, Rats, Zebrafish, Others

Our expertise allows us to furnish the development of animal models and groundbreaking therapeutics modalities for ZES, thereby bolstering pharmacokinetics study and drug safety evaluation. Emphasizing the crucial need for grappling with the intricacies of ZES, our innovative approaches and research endeavors offer hope for those grappling with this insidious condition.

No matter what stage of research you are at, we can provide you with corresponding research services. If you are interested in our services, please feel free to contact us for more details and quotation information of related services.

References

  • Cho, M. S., and Kasi, A. "Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome." In StatPearls (2022).
  • Rossi, R. E., et al. "Gastrinoma and Zollinger Ellison syndrome: A roadmap for the management between new and old therapies." World journal of gastroenterology 27.35 (2021): 5890–5907.
  • Pratap, T., et al. "Radiological Features of Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome: A Report of Two Cases." The Indian journal of radiology & imaging 32.3 (2022): 395–402.

All of our services and products are intended for preclinical research use only and cannot be used to diagnose, treat or manage patients.

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