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Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS)

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-invasive type of breast cancer wherein abnormal cells are restricted to the milk ducts of the breast. Unlike invasive breast cancer, DCIS has not spread beyond the ducts into the surrounding tissues. As a distinguished company specializing in rare disease research and therapy development, we are fully dedicated to offering comprehensive solutions for the development of therapies targeting DCIS.

Overview of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), also called stage 0 breast cancer or intraductal carcinoma, is a type of breast cancer that originates in the milk ducts. Approximately 50,000 cases of DCIS are diagnosed annually in the U.S. It is characterized by the presence of abnormal cells within the ducts, without invasion into the surrounding breast tissue. DCIS is often detected through mammography screening or during a biopsy for other breast-related concerns. Although DCIS is non-invasive, if left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.

Biomarkers of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ

Biomarkers can be genetic, protein, or cellular markers that provide valuable information about the characteristics of the tumor. In the case of DCIS, biomarkers can help differentiate low-risk from high-risk lesions and guide therapeutic decisions. Biomarkers such as Ki67, p16, and HER2 have been studied extensively in DCIS and have shown promise in predicting the likelihood of disease progression and recurrence.

Lineages of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).Fig. 1 Evolutionary models of invasion in DCIS. (Wilson, Natalie, et al., 2021)

Targets of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ Therapy

Several molecular pathways and targets have been implicated in the progression of DCIS. For example, the estrogen receptor (ER) pathway is frequently involved in DCIS, making ER-positive tumors potential targets for hormonal therapies such as tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors. Other potential targets include HER2, which is overexpressed in a subset of DCIS cases, and various signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation and survival, such as the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway.

Therapies of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ

Endocrine Therapy

Endocrine therapy, particularly the use of tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors, has shown promise in reducing the risk of recurrence in hormone receptor-positive DCIS. Tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, has been evaluated in trials such as the NSABP B-24 and UK/ANZ DCIS trials. Anastrozole, a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor, has also been investigated as an alternative to tamoxifen in postmenopausal hormone receptor-positive DCIS cases.

Targeted Therapy

The efficacy of anti-HER2 targeted therapy in reducing recurrence and improving outcomes in DCIS remains uncertain. While anti-HER2 therapy has proven effective in treating HER2-positive invasive ductal carcinoma, its role in HER2-positive DCIS requires further validation. A trial investigating anti-HER2 dendritic cell vaccination in cases with HER2-positive DCIS showed promising results by inducing a tumor-specific T cell reaction.

Our Services

Our company is at the forefront of DCIS therapy diagnostics and development. We offer state-of-the-art diagnostic services that utilize advanced techniques to identify specific biomarkers and genetic alterations in DCIS tumors.

Therapy Development Platforms

Animal Models of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ

Through rigorous research and collaboration with experts in the field, we aim to identify novel therapeutic targets and develop innovative drugs that can effectively treat DCIS while minimizing side effects. Our company's expertise in drug development, including preclinical research and animal model development, allows us to to accelerate pharmaceutical companies' research and development.

MMTV-PyMT Models
The MMTV-PyMT model is created by inducing the overexpression of the PyMT oncogene under the control of the MMTV-LTR promoter. It faithfully recapitulates the natural progression of breast cancer, mimicking stages that closely resemble the progression of DCIS in humans. As a leading provider in the field, our company specializes in offering comprehensive services for the development of the MMTV-PyMT model.
MMTV-neu Models
The MMTV-neu model focuses on studying DCIS associated with the ErbB2/HER2/Neu oncogene. This GEMM overexpresses the ErbB2 oncogene, driven by the MMTV promoter. It generates pre-invasive disease stages similar to human DCIS, allowing researchers to study the progression of HER2-positive DCIS. Our company offers expert development services using the MMTV-neu model to gain insights into this specific subtype of DCIS.
C3(1)/Tag and WAP-T Models
The C3(1)/Tag and WAP-T models utilize the SV40 large T-antigen (Tag) to induce tumor formation and mimic human DCIS progression. These GEMMs show ductal atypia progressing to DCIS, and eventually to invasive ductal carcinoma. Our company provides comprehensive development services using these models to investigate the microenvironmental changes associated with DCIS progression.
Optional Species Mouse, Rat, Dog, Others

In addition, we also provide other customized animal models to meet diverse needs. If you are interested in our services, please feel free to contact us for more details and quotation information of related services.


  • Grimm, Lars J., et al. "Ductal carcinoma in situ: state-of-the-art review." Radiology 302.2 (2022): 246-255.
  • Wang, Jing, et al. "Progression from ductal carcinoma in situ to invasive breast cancer: molecular features and clinical significance." Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy 9.1 (2024): 83.

All of our services and products are intended for preclinical research use only and cannot be used to diagnose, treat or manage patients.

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