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Synovial Sarcoma (SS)

Synovial sarcoma (SS) is an aggressive malignancy that primarily arises in the soft tissues, often found near the knee joint in the extremities. Our company is committed to offering state-of-the-art services in the field of Synovial sarcoma diagnostics and therapy development. 

Overview of Synovial Sarcoma (SS)

Synovial sarcoma (SS) is an uncommon malignancy originating from soft tissues, commonly in close proximity to joints. The annual incidence of SS ranges from approximately 800 to 1000 cases. Contrary to its name, Synovial Sarcoma does not develop from the synovial membrane but rather from primitive mesenchymal cells. Its distinct feature involves a specific chromosomal translocation between the SYT gene on chromosome 18 and either the SSX1 or SSX2 gene on the X chromosome. This translocation leads to the fusion of these genes, forming a chimeric SS18-SSX fusion protein that plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of SS.

Pathogenesis of Synovial Sarcoma (SS)

The SYT-SSX fusion gene resulting from chromosomal translocation is considered a key driver in the initiation and progression of Synovial Sarcoma. Other genetic alterations, such as TP53 mutations and alterations in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, have also been observed in some cases. Exposure to certain environmental factors, such as radiation or chemical carcinogens, may increase the risk of developing Synovial Sarcoma, although these factors are not the primary cause.

Molecular study of Synovial Sarcoma (SS) by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).Fig. 1 Molecular study of Synovial Sarcoma (SS) by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). (Gazendam, A. M., et al., 2021)

Targets of Synovial Sarcoma (SS) Therapy

SYT-SSX Fusion Protein

The chimeric protein resulting from the SYT-SSX fusion gene is considered a primary target for therapeutic interventions. It plays a vital role in promoting tumor growth and survival, making it an attractive target for drug development.

PI3K/AKT/mTOR Pathway

The dysregulation of this signaling pathway is frequently observed in Synovial sarcoma. Inhibitors targeting this pathway have shown promising results in preclinical studies.

Epigenetic Modifiers

Emerging research has shed light on the role of epigenetic regulators, including EZH2 and BRD4, in the development and progression of synovial sarcoma.

Angiogenesis Pathway

Synovial Sarcoma is known to exhibit increased angiogenesis, which supports tumor growth and metastasis. Inhibiting angiogenesis through anti-angiogenic agents has shown promise in preclinical studies.

Therapies of Synovial Sarcoma (SS)

  • Immunotherapy
    Although studies have indicated that Synovial sarcoma has lower expression of programmed death-1 protein (PD-1) and its ligand PD-L1 compared to other soft tissue sarcomas, recent research has shed light on a novel "core oncogenic program" driven by the SS18-SSX fusion gene. This discovery has implications for therapeutics strategies based on epigenetics, cell-cycle control, and immune augmentation.
  • Metabolic Therapy
    Metabolic therapy focuses on targeting the altered metabolic pathways in cancer cells to inhibit their growth and survival. In the case of Synovial sarcoma, a critical metabolic abnormality involves the loss of expression of arginino-succinate synthetase 1 (ASS1) due to methylation. This loss of ASS1 expression renders Synovial Sarcoma cells reliant on external sources of the amino acid arginine.
  • Cytotoxic Chemotherapy
    Cytotoxic chemotherapy, which involves the use of drugs to kill cancer cells, is a standard approach in the therapeutics of Synovial sarcoma. The primary chemotherapy drugs used against Synovial sarcoma include doxorubicin and ifosfamide. These drugs have demonstrated some efficacy in shrinking tumors and improving survival rates in cases with advanced or metastatic disease.

Our Services

Our team of expert researchers and scientists focuses on the development of targeted therapies specifically designed to inhibit the identified molecular targets in Synovial sarcoma. We offer a range of diagnostics and therapy development services

Therapy Development Platforms

Animal Models of Synovial Sarcoma (SS)

Patient-Derived Xenograft (PDX) Models
Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models are a cutting-edge research tool that involves the direct transplantation of patient tumor tissues into immunodeficient mice. At our company, we specialize in the development of PDX models specifically tailored for studying synovial sarcoma. 
Optional Mouse Strain athymic nu/nu mice, athymic NMRI-nu/nu mice
Conditional Transgenic Models
Our company's SS conditional transgenic model development services encompass the generation of genetically modified mice with specific alterations relevant to synovial sarcoma.
Optional Genotype Rosa26/hSS2, Rosa26/hSS1, Myf5-Cre/hSS2, Myf6-Cre/hSS2, Rosa26CreER/hSS2
Optional Species Mouse, Rat, Others

In addition, we also provide other customized animal models to meet diverse needs. If you are interested in our services, please feel free to contact us for more details and quotation information of related services.


  • Gazendam, A. M., et al. "Synovial sarcoma: a clinical review." Current Oncology 28.3 (2021): 1909-1920.
  • Fiore, Michele, et al. "The biology of synovial sarcoma: state-of-the-art and future perspectives." Current treatment options in oncology 22 (2021): 1-22.
  • Blay, J-Y., et al. "Synovial sarcoma: characteristics, challenges, and evolving therapeutic strategies." ESMO open 8.5 (2023): 101618.

All of our services and products are intended for preclinical research use only and cannot be used to diagnose, treat or manage patients.

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