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Mammary Paget Disease (MPD)

Mammary Paget disease (MPD) is a rare form of breast cancer that primarily affects the nipple and areola. Our company is at the forefront of MPD diagnostics, therapy development, and preclinical research services, working tirelessly to bring innovative solutions to the forefront.

Overview of MPD

Mammary Paget disease (MPD), also known as Paget's disease of the breast or Paget disease of the nipple, has been reported to account for 1-3% of all primary breast cancers. It was first described by Sir James Paget in 1874 and is characterized by the presence of malignant cells in the epidermis of the nipple and areola. MPD is often associated with an underlying breast carcinoma, which may be located in the breast ducts or lobules.

Pathogenesis of MPD

The exact cause of MPD is not yet fully understood. However, it is believed to arise from the infiltration of cancer cells from an underlying breast tumor into the nipple and areola, resulting in the characteristic changes observed in MPD. Studies have suggested that MPD may be associated with genetic mutations, such as alterations in the TP53 gene, as well as hormonal factors and chronic inflammation.

Hematoxylin and eosin staining for Paget's disease, and immunohistochemical analysis of CK7.Fig. 1 Paget disease (hematoxylin and eosin) and CK7 immunohistochemistry. (Pérez, J. C., et al., 2023)

Targets of MPD Therapy

Hormonal Receptors

Hormone receptor status, including estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression, can guide therapy decisions in MPD cases. Targeting these receptors with hormone-based therapies, such as tamoxifen, may be beneficial for hormone receptor-positive MPD.


Overexpression of the HER2 receptor has been observed in a subset of MPD cases. Targeting HER2 with monoclonal antibodies, such as trastuzumab, has shown promising results in HER2-positive breast cancers and may hold potential for MPD therapeutics.

Immune Checkpoints

In recent years, immune checkpoint inhibitors have revolutionized cancer therapy. Exploring the expression of immune checkpoints, such as PD-L1, in MPD lesions may offer insights into the potential efficacy of immunotherapeutic approaches in MPD.

Therapies of MPD

  • Systemic Therapy
    Systemic therapies, such as chemotherapy and targeted therapies, play a crucial role in MPD therapeutics. Chemotherapy, comprising various cytotoxic drugs, can be administered preoperatively or postoperatively to eliminate cancer cells throughout the body. Targeted therapies, like trastuzumab, aim to specifically inhibit cancer cell growth by targeting molecular abnormalities, such as HER2 overexpression.
  • Hormonal Therapy
    Invasive EMPD (extramammary Paget disease) often exhibits a high expression of the androgen receptor (AR), suggesting the involvement of AR signaling in MPD progression. A case report highlighted the potential benefits of combined androgen blockade therapy in MPD. The combination of bicalutamide and leuprolide acetate, commonly used for prostate cancer therapeutics, improved multiple bone metastases in a case with invasive EMPD.

Our Services

At our company, we are committed to providing cutting-edge diagnostics and therapy development services for MPD. We offer molecular profiling services to identify specific molecular alterations in MPD tumors. This enables personalized therapy strategies and facilitates the selection of targeted therapies based on the individual's tumor characteristics.

Therapy Development Platforms

Animal Models of MPD

Animal model development services are another highlight of our company, which allows us to provide preclinical research services for MPD therapies, including drug safety evaluation and pharmacokinetic analysis.

Xenograft Models
Paget's disease of the breast is characterized by the presence of abnormal cells in the nipple and areola, often associated with underlying HER2-positive breast carcinoma. Our company has successfully developed Her2-positive breast cancer xenograft models that recapitulate critical aspects of PD, including the characteristic presence of Paget cells.
Optional Species Mouse, Rat, Others

In addition, we also provide other customized animal models to meet diverse needs. If you are interested in our services, please feel free to contact us for more details and quotation information of related services.


  • Pérez, J. C., et al. "Extramammary Paget disease: a therapeutic challenge, for a rare entity." Current Oncology Reports 25.10 (2023): 1081-1094.
  • Markarian, Sione, and Dennis R. Holmes. "Mammary Paget's disease: an update." Cancers 14.10 (2022): 2422.

All of our services and products are intended for preclinical research use only and cannot be used to diagnose, treat or manage patients.

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