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Penile Cancer (PC)

Penile cancer (PC) is an infrequent malignant condition that predominantly impacts the penile tissues. Our company stands at the forefront of pioneering research and development in this field, committed to enhancing our comprehension of the disease and advancing therapeutic approaches. With our extensive expertise, we are well-equipped to offer a comprehensive solution.

Overview of Penile Cancer (PC)

Penile cancer (PC), also referred to as penile carcinoma or cancer of the penis, is an uncommon malignant tumor that develops in the tissues of the penis. It represents a small fraction, less than 1%, of all cancers affecting males. In developed nations specifically, the annual occurrence of penile cancer is less than 1 case per 100,000 men. The cancer primarily originates from the squamous cells that line the surface of the penis.

  • Common Types of PC

    -Sarcomatoid carcinomas (1%)

    -Basaloid (4%)

    -Warty (6%)

    -Papillary (7%)

    -Other SCC mixed (7%)

    -Verrucous (8%)

    -Mixed warty-basaloid (17%)

    -Not otherwise specified (49%)

  • Rare Types of PC

    -Small-cell tumors

    -Merkel-cell tumors

    -Clear-cell tumors

    -Sebaceous-cell tumors

    -Basal-cell tumors

    -Melanomas tumors

    -Sarcomas tumors
Fig.1 Localization of penile cancer lesions.Fig.1 Localization of penile cancer lesions. (Borque-Fernando, Ángel, et al., 2023)

Pathogenesis of Penile Cancer (PC)

  • Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection: Persistent infection with high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV), notably HPV-16 and HPV-18, has been robustly linked to the development of penile cancer.
  • Poor Hygiene: Inadequate hygiene practices, resulting in the buildup of smegma, a substance that accumulates beneath the foreskin, may elevate the risk of penile cancer.
  • Phimosis: Phimosis, characterized by the inability to retract the foreskin, has been linked to a heightened risk of penile cancer. However, studies have demonstrated that circumcision can effectively reduce this risk.
  • Tobacco Smoking: The habit of tobacco smoking has been identified as a risk factor for penile cancer, likely attributed to the presence of carcinogens within tobacco smoke.

Targeted Therapy Development of Penile Cancer (PC)

Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)

Overexpression of the EGFR has been observed in a substantial number of penile cancer cases. Trials have demonstrated promising results with monoclonal antibodies targeting EGFR, such as panitumumab and cetuximab. Further investigations are necessary to explore the effectiveness of these antibodies in combination with chemotherapy and radiation therapy in the management of penile cancer.


Angiogenesis, the process of forming new blood vessels, plays a crucial role in the growth and spread of tumors in penile cancer. Inhibition of angiogenesis has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy in combating this disease. Agents such as sunitinib and sorafenib have demonstrated activity in cases resistant to chemotherapy, with some cases achieving partial responses or stable disease.

Our Services

Our company offers state-of-the-art diagnostic tools and techniques to accurately diagnose and stage penile cancer. Our diagnostics development services include karyotype analysis, omics analysis, biomarker development, and artificial intelligence.

Therapy Development Platforms

Our preclinical research services involve conducting in vitro and in vivo studies to evaluate the effectiveness of potential therapies. Through rigorous testing and analysis, we assess the pharmacokinetics, toxicity, and therapeutic potential of drug candidates, providing valuable insights for clinical trial design.

Animal Model Development Services

Genetically Engineered Models
Our company offers cutting-edge genetic engineering model development services specifically tailored for PC research. These services involve the manipulation of animal genomes to introduce key oncogenes and mimic the molecular features of HPV-induced carcinogenesis. One such model is the K14-HPV16 mouse model, where the expression of HPV oncogenes (E5, E6, and E7) is targeted to basal keratinocytes using the Krt14 gene promoter. This model allows for the study of interactions between HPV and the immune system, as well as investigating the impact of hormonal and microenvironmental factors.
Optional Models
  • Based on the targeted deletion of Apc/Smad4 with or without Pten deletion. (C57Bl/6 mouse)
  • Based on the targeted expression of the entire HPV16 early region. (FVB/N mouse)
Optional Species Mouse, Rat, Others

If you are interested in our services, please feel free to contact us for more details and quotation information of related services.


  • Borque-Fernando, Ángel, et al. "Epidemiology, diagnosis and management of penile cancer: results from the Spanish National Registry of Penile Cancer." Cancers 15.3 (2023): 616.
  • Sonpavde, G., et al. "Penile cancer: current therapy and future directions." Annals of oncology 24.5 (2013): 1179-1189.

All of our services and products are intended for preclinical research use only and cannot be used to diagnose, treat or manage patients.

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