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Testicular Cancer (TC)

Testicular cancer (TC) is a rare form of cancer that primarily affects the testicles, which are the male reproductive organs responsible for producing sperm and testosterone. Through our diagnostics and therapy development services, we strive to improve the understanding of TC, identify novel therapeutic targets, and develop effective solutions.

Overview of Testicular Cancer (TC)

Testicular cancer (TC) arises from the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the testicles, leading to the formation of tumors. While it is considered a relatively uncommon form of cancer, it predominantly affects young men in the age range of 15 to 44 years. The annual incidence of TC is estimated to be approximately 3 to 10 new cases per 100,000 men. Typically, TC manifests as a painless lump or swelling in one or both testicles, often accompanied by other symptoms such as testicular pain, discomfort, or a sensation of heaviness.

Pathogenesis of Testicular Cancer (TC)

There are certain factors that can contribute to an increased risk of developing testicular cancer (TC). These include a history of undescended testicles (cryptorchidism), as men with this condition are at a higher risk. Additionally, individuals with a family history of TC are more likely to develop the disease. Abnormal testicular development, as seen in conditions like Klinefelter syndrome and gonadal dysgenesis, can also increase the risk. It is important to note that TC is most commonly diagnosed in young men, with the risk decreasing as age advances.

Fig.1 Apoptotic signaling in cisplatin sensitive TC.Fig.1 Apoptotic signaling in cisplatin sensitive TC. (de Vries, Gerda, et al., 2020)

Therapy Development of Testicular Cancer (TC)


Chemotherapy is commonly used for TC cases with advanced or metastatic disease. Platinum-based drugs such as cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin are commonly used in combination to achieve the best outcomes.


TC tumors have shown expression of PD-L1, making them potential candidates for immune checkpoint inhibitors. However, initial studies with pembrolizumab and avelumab have not shown significant efficacy, possibly due to low PD-L1 expression and low mutational burden in TC tumors.

Targeted therapy

Targeted therapies, such as mTORC1 inhibitors and CDK4/6 inhibitors, are being explored for their potential in TC therapy. Combination therapies involving targeted agents and chemotherapy have shown promising results in preclinical studies.

Table 1 Targets and investigational drugs for Testicular Cancer (TC). (de Vries, Gerda, et al., 2020)

Target Drug Trial phase
PARP Olaparib Phase II
PARP + DNMT Veliparib + Gemcitabine + Carboplatin Phase II
CD30 Brentuximab-vedotin Phase II
CD30 Brentuximab-vedotin Phase II
ALDH Disulfiram + cisplatin Phase II
CLDN6 ASP1650 Phase II
DNMT Guadecitabine (SGI-110) + cisplatin Phase I
PDGFR + VEGFR + KIT Sunitinib Phase II
PDGFR + VEGFR + KIT Pazopanib Phase II
KIT + PDGFR + BCR-ABL Imatinib Phase II
mTORC1 Everolimus Phase II
mTORC1 + EGFR Sirolimus + Erlotinib Phase II
CDK4/6 Palbociclib Phase II
CDK4/6 Ribociclib Phase II
PD-1 Pembrolizumab Phase II
PD-1 + CTLA-4 Nivolumab + Ipilimumab Phase II
PD-L1 Avelumab Phase II
PD-L1 + CTLA-4 Durvalumab + Tremelimumab Phase II
PD-L1 + CTLA-4 Durvalumab +/- Tremelimumab Phase II

Our Services

To enable personalized therapy strategies and contribute to the development of effective diagnostics and therapeutic solutions, we offer comprehensive genetic testing services to identify genetic mutations and markers associated with TC.

Therapy Development Platforms

We specialize in developing reliable animal models that closely mimic TC in humans. These models enable the testing of new therapies, evaluation of drug toxicity, and investigation of tumor biology, ultimately leading to the development of more effective therapies.

Animal Model Development Services

Customized Animal Models
With rich experience and advanced rare disease model development platform, our company can provide customized animal model development services based on different testicular cancer (TC) subtypes and phenotypes to meet your specific needs in the research and development process.
Optional Models
  • Seminoma models
  • Embryonal carcinoma models
  • Yolk sac carcinoma models
  • Choriocarcinoma models
  • Teratoma models
  • Others
Optional Species Mouse, Rat, Others

If you are interested in our services, please feel free to contact us for more details and quotation information of related services.


  • de Vries, Gerda, et al. "Testicular cancer: Determinants of cisplatin sensitivity and novel therapeutic opportunities." Cancer Treatment Reviews 88 (2020): 102054.
  • De Toni, Luca, et al. "Testicular cancer: Genes, environment, hormones." Frontiers in endocrinology 10 (2019): 456766.

All of our services and products are intended for preclinical research use only and cannot be used to diagnose, treat or manage patients.

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