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Ocular Autoimmune Diseases

Ocular autoimmune diseases involve the immune system mistakenly attacking eye tissues, leading to inflammation and damage, such as in Sjögren's syndrome and thyroid eye disease. Our company is well-equipped to address your drug and therapy development requirements in Ocular Autoimmune Diseases therapy.

Overview of Ocular Autoimmune Diseases

Ocular autoimmune diseases include a variety of conditions where the immune system mistakenly attacks the eye. Common manifestations include uveitis, scleritis, and keratoconjunctivitis sicca, with uveitis alone having an annual incidence of 17.4 to 52.4 per 100,000 people and a prevalence ranging from 38 to 714 per 100,000 people. These diseases often accompany systemic autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and Sjögren's syndrome, and their prevalence can vary widely based on the specific underlying condition and demographic factors.​

Pathogenesis of Ocular Autoimmune Diseases

The pathogenesis of ocular autoimmune diseases involves a complex interplay of immune mechanisms. Immune privilege in the eye is maintained through local and systemic pathways to preserve vision, yet microglial cells may initiate autoimmune responses. The autoimmune reactions in the eye often involve the loss of tolerance to self-antigens, such as S-antigen and interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP), leading to inflammation. Environmental triggers, genetic predispositions, and molecular mimicry are critical factors that contribute to the development of these diseases.

Different locations affected by autoimmune diseases.Fig. 1 Different locations of the body that are affected by autoimmune diseases. (Glover, K., et al., 2021)

Types of Ocular Autoimmune Diseases

Tab. 1 Ocular Manifestations of Autoimmune Disease. (Patel, S.J. and Lundy, D.C., 2002)

Ocular manifestation Clinical trewfeatures
Rheumatoid arthritis Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, scleritis, episcleritis, keratitis, ulcerative keratitis, choroiditis, retinal vasculitis, episcleral nodules, retinal detachments, macular edema
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis Uveitis
Sjögren's syndrome Keratoconjunctivitis sicca
Ankylosing spondylitis Uveitis
Reiter's syndrome Uveitis, conjunctivitis, keratitis
Enteropathic arthritis Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, conjunctivitis, uveitis, episcleritis, scleritis, keratitis, retinal hemorrhages, retinal vasculitis, proliferative retinopathy, optic neuritis, ischemic optic neuropathy, hemianopia, amaurosis, internuclear ophthalmoplegia, pupillary abnormalities, oculomotor abnormalities, visual hallucinations
Psoriatic arthritis Afferent: optic neuritis, retrobulbar neuritis, visual field defects
Efferent: internuclear ophthalmoplegia, dysmetria, nystagmus, cranial nerve palsies
Giant cell arteritis Amaurosis fugax, diplopia, vision loss
Graves' disease Proptosis/exophthalmos, lid lag and retraction, keratitis, decreased visual acuity, reduced visual fields, relative afferent pupillary defect, loss of color vision
Myasthenia gravis Diplopia, eyelid ptosis
Sarcoidosis Uveitis, conjunctival nodules, cranial nerve palsies, enlarged lacrimal glands, optic neuropathy
Wegener's granulomatosis Proptosis/exophthalmos, orbital cellulitis, uveitis, corneal ulcers, optic neuropathy
Behçet's syndrome Uveitis, hypopyon
Antiphospholipid syndrome Vaso-occlusive retinopathy, ischemic optic neuropathy
Polyarteritis nodosa Episcleritis, scleritis, optic neuropathy
Takayasu's arteritis Vaso-occlusive retinopathy, ischemic optic neuropathy, cataracts
Dermatomyositis Eyelid/conjunctival edema, retinopathy, uveitis

Therapeutics Development of Neovascular Glaucoma

Small Molecule Drugs

Small molecule drugs are typically organic compounds with low molecular weight that can modulate biological processes by interacting with specific molecular targets. Methotrexate, azathioprine, and cyclosporine are small molecules that suppress the immune system to prevent it from attacking ocular tissues.

Gene Therapies

Gene therapies treat diseases by introducing genetic material into cells to correct or regulate gene expression. CRISPR/Cas9, shows promise in addressing genetic mutations. Current research is exploring how it can accurately edit genes in retinal cells, potentially preventing or treating retinal degeneration.

Cell Therapies

Cell therapies focus on transplanting cells to repair or replace damaged tissues or to modulate immune responses. iPSCs, derived from individual's own cells, can be differentiated into retinal cells. Current research is investigating the use of iPSCs for regenerating retinal tissue in cases of autoimmune retinopathies.

Monoclonal Antibodies

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are engineered proteins that can specifically bind to target molecules, modulating immune responses or signaling pathways. Tocilizumab targets the interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) and is used to treat autoimmune uveitis by reducing inflammation and immune activation.

Our Services

Our company adopts a partnership-driven approach. We collaborate closely with clients to craft tailored, innovative Ocular Autoimmune Diseases therapy strategies and ensure robust support throughout the process.

Platforms of Ocular Autoimmune Diseases Therapy Development

Animal Models of Ocular Autoimmune Diseases

We have established expertise in developing and utilizing relevant animal models that closely mimic the disease characteristics and response to therapy. These models enable us to evaluate the safety and efficacy of potential therapies.

Chemical Induced Models
We provide diverse model choices customized to meet specific research needs related to Ocular Autoimmune Diseases. These models allow researchers to simulate and study the complex biological processes associated with Ocular Autoimmune Diseases.
Optional ModelsExperimental Mice Icon (Creative Biolabs AI).
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Induced Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis Model
  • Ultraviolet-Induced Keratitis Model
  • Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Ocular Disease Model
  • Retinal Detachment-Induced Autoimmune Uveitis Model
Genetically Engineered Models
Our expertise in genetic engineering techniques, such as CRISPR/Cas9 technology, allows us to generate accurate and reliable models that recapitulate the genetic alterations observed in human Ocular Autoimmune Diseases.
Optional ModelsExperimental Mice Icon (Creative Biolabs AI).
  • IL-10 Knockout Mouse Model
  • HLA-B27 Transgenic Rat Model
  • Transgenic MOG Overexpression Rat Model
  • TNF-α Transgenic Mouse Model
  • Transgenic IFN-γ Overexpression Mouse Model
Optional Species Mice, Rats, Non-human primates, Others

In addition to these models, our comprehensive services encompass other models that target specific signaling pathways and molecular targets.

If our services align with your goals, please contact us for more details.


  • Glover, K., et al., "Epidemiology of Ocular Manifestations in Autoimmune Disease." Front Immunol, (2021). 12: p. 744396.
  • Patel, S.J. and Lundy, D.C., "Ocular manifestations of autoimmune disease." Am Fam Physician, (2002). 66(6): p. 991-998.
  • Generali, E., et al., "Ocular Involvement in Systemic Autoimmune Diseases." Clin Rev Allergy Immunol, (2015). 49(3): p. 263-270.

All of our services and products are intended for preclinical research use only and cannot be used to diagnose, treat or manage patients.

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